To evaluate the potential invasiveness of pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus introduced to northwestern European inland waters, growth and reproduction traits were examined in ten populations along a trajectory spanning northwestern Europe (Norway, England, Holland, Belgium and France) and evaluated in light of published dataset from Europe.

Cucherousset, J., Copp, G.H., Fox, M.G., Sterud, E., van Kleef, H.H., Verreycken, H., & Zahorska, E. (2009). Life-history traits and potential invasiveness of introduced pumpkinseed Lepomis gibbosus populations in northwestern Europe. Biological Invasions. Volume 11-9: pp 2171-2180.