Strong population development of the pumpkinseed appears to be facilitated by nature management practices in existing ponds (the removal of accumulated organic matter and macrophytes) and by creating new ponds. These measures enhance suitable breeding habitats that are free of competitors and predators. Isolated waters harbouring pumpkinseed were more often situated close to human habitation and infrastructure than could be expected based on the distribution of randomly selected isolated waters, identifying introductions as an important dispersal mechanism. Currently there is little experience with pumpkinseed control. However, options to be explored include: decreasing depth of colonized waters by filling them with soil allowing them to occasionally dry up, introducing native competitors and predators and the use of biodegradable piscicides. In addition, limitation of the sale of pumpkinseed is required as well as public education on the consequences of introducing exotic species.
Van Kleef, H., Van der Velde, G.,Leuven, R.S.E.W. & Esselink, H. (2008). Pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus) invasions facilitated by introductions and nature management strongly reduce macroinvertebrate abundance in isolated water bodies. Biological Invasions. Volume 10-8: pp 1481-1490.