The invasive Australian swamp stonecrop,Crassula helmsii, is a perennial amphibious herboriginating from Australia and New Zealand. In freshwater wetlands of North-western Europe, this alien plant species is invasive due to its efficient colonization of empty niches. The establishment of dense C. helmsii growth is threatening native biodiversity and functioning of freshwater ecosystems, especially oligotrophic wetlands with high disturbance and nutrient enrichments. As the effects of these potential drivers of ecosystem degradation are generally difficult to determine in the field, we tested the competitive strength of C. helmsii in a greenhouse experiment with two native competitor species of the same habitat type, Pilularia globulifera and Littorella uniflora. In addition, the effect of nutrient enrichment by water bird feces on competition was studied by adding waterfowl droppings.

Reducing nutrient availability and enhancing biotic resistance limits settlement and growth of the invasive Australian swamp stonecrop (Crassula helmsii)